Chapter 1. Commercial Seaports and Strategic Maritime Passages in Transformation
The functioning and operations of and equipment utilized in container terminals, bulk cargo terminals, cruise terminals, and nontraditional terminals. The roles and activities of key private-sector stakeholders, including terminal owners, terminal operators, stevedore companies, and longshoremen. The impact and role of the development of the container and intermodalism. Changes to shipping and seaports due to the expansions of the world’s two key Canals—the Panama Canal and the Suez Canal. The impact of the transformation of the Polar Passages—and potential benefits and challenges.
Chapter 2. Modes of Maritime Transport
The origins and development of modern commercial ships and shipping. The types and functioning of modern commercial ships, including bulk carriers, tankers, container ships, freighters, oceangoing tugboats, and cruise ships. The emergence of "greener" ships and the factors driving this development. The race for building bigger ships and the reasons why bigger is perceived to be better. Why orders for Polar class ships are on rise.
Chapter 3. Documentation, Financial Transactions, and Business Entities in Commercial Maritime Transportation
The process and steps in the transport of ocean cargo through the supply chain—from the ordering of factory goods to delivery to the importer. The types, content, and usage of documentation utilized in the export and import of ocean cargoes. Documentation requirements for compliance with U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) policies. The definition of key terminology used in commercial ocean maritime transportation. The roles, functions, and interactions of the primary business entities involved in the transport of ocean cargo through the supply chain.
Chapter 4. International and U.S. Maritime Security Regulation and Programs
The ISPS Code, Parts A and B, and SOLAS Amendments. The World Customs Organization’s SAFE Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade. MTSA: Core tenets of the U.S. "Maritime Transportation Security Act". C-TPAT: CBP’s flagship antiterrorism cargo supply chain program. CBP’s "Importer Security Filing," "24-Hour Rule," and "Container Security Initiative" (CSI). Goals of the nuclear detection "Secure Freight Initiative" program.
Chapter 5. Vulnerabilities in the Cargo Supply Chain
The key security vulnerabilities of the links in the supply chain of ocean cargoes. The impact of a serious maritime incident, such as a terrorist attack in a U.S. seaport, on the U.S. economy, or in the cargo supply chain. The security policies and procedures which have proven successful in antinarcotics smuggling programs established by maritime shipping companies and private seaports. Recommended physical security measures, monitoring and detection systems, procedural security standards, and personnel security practices at each phase in the cargo supply chain. The history, impact, and types of cargo theft. Internal conspiracies and techniques used by criminal and terrorist elements to circumvent security. The types, usage, and tactics for defeating container seals.
Chapter 6. Perils of the Seas: Piracy, Stowaways, and Irregular Migration
Define piracy and be familiarized with its history. Recognize the current trends and impacts of piracy and armed robbery against ships. Explain the tactics and techniques utilized by pirates. Understand the motivations of stowaways and the business of international human trafficking. Appreciate the techniques and tactics utilized by stowaways to access a vessel. Understand the trends in large-scale irregular migration. Appreciate the legal requirements placed on commercial shipping related to large-scale irregular migration and the challenges and dangers for Crew tasked with the rescue of migrants.
Chapter 7. Drug Smuggling via Maritime Cargo, Containers, and Vessels
The origins, cultivation, and production of the three primary illegal drugs—cocaine, heroin, and marijuana—smuggled to the United States and Europe via commercial maritime transport. The key maritime drug smuggling routes and trends and what factors influence change. The various methods and techniques used to smuggle illegal drugs via cargo, containers, and vessels. The role of "front companies" and free trade zones to facilitate drug smuggling by international criminal organizations. The proliferation of and evolution in the "Narco Submarine."
Chapter 8. Targeting and Usage of Commercial Ships and Port by Terrorists and Transnational Criminal Organizations
Familiarization with attacks over the past decade of ships and seaports by terrorist groups and recent game-changing incidents by ISIS and other Jihadists operating in North Africa. Awareness of the tactics and technique of terror groups in using commercial shipping and cruise lines to transport terrorists and their materials around the world. Understand the nexus between terrorist groups and transnational criminal organizations (TCOs). Explain the evolution and operations of the primary TCOs, how they use commercial shipping and ships to facilitate their criminal contraband activities, and the negative impacts of their enterprises.
Chapter 9. Cyber and Information Threats to Seaports and Ships
The current and emerging cyberthreats and their impact. The specific cyberthreats to the commercial maritime sector. Why seaports and ships are especially vulnerable to cyberattacks. Who are the actual and potential actors targeting ships and seaports. The key components to a cybersecurity plan for businesses and organizations which builds Resiliency.
Chapter 10. A Strategic Blueprint for World-Class Seaport Security
The Defense-in-Depth concept in port security. The External Security Ring, Perimeter Security Ring, Inner Security Ring, Site and Asset-Specific Security Ring, and Vessel Security Ring and the components and their functions of each. Procedures of security personnel employment and training. The role of the Security Director.
Chapter 11. Threat Mitigation Strategies
Behaviors and activities of criminals, terrorists, and others likely to pose a security threat. Strategies, procedures, and measures to detect, deter, delay, deny, and contain pirate attacks. Requirements for configuring and equipping an effective Citadel. Recommended actions to survive as a hostage of pirates or terrorists. Container inspection techniques. Security equipment, systems, and devices utilized to detect contraband and unauthorized persons in a container.
Chapter 12. Security Management and Leadership in Seaports
The port security director—leader, manager, and knowledgeable asset to the commercial aspects of the port. The strategic management process, ISO certifications, security metrics management, and the importance of defining job descriptions. Ways to plan and conduct training. The role of intelligence, risk management, and threat assessments. Contingency planning, crisis leadership, and exercises.
Chapter 13. A Networked Response to Maritime Threats: Interagency Coordination
The whole-of-government approach in response to maritime security incidents. Challenges presented in defining terminologies used in policies pertaining to coordinated responses to maritime security incidents. National-level Maritime Threat Response Frameworks used by other countries. Key elements and considerations in the formulation of a National-level Maritime Threat Response Framework. The U.S. process, as viewed in response to the hijacking of the M/V MAERSK ALABAMA.
Chapter 14. Legal Authorities for Maritime Law Enforcement, Safety, and Environmental Protection
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOSC). The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. The Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act (MDLEA) and Drug Trafficking Vessel Interdiction Act (DTVIA). The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships and its application worldwide. The Fisheries and Environmental Laws of the United States. The U.S. Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). The Authority, Role, and Operations of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) in responding to and enforcing the above International Conventions and the U.S. laws.